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Practical Things Your Can Do Today
To Decrease Your Chances of Dementia

Here are Some things you can do to better your brain health and work to prevent Alzheimer's disease:

- Learn a second (or third, or fourth) language. ...
- Drink raw fruit and vegetable juices. ...
- Add a vitamin K supplement to your diet. ...
- Reduce stress. ...
- Commit to regular exercise. ...
- Laugh more. ...
- Run 15 miles per week.
- Let your motives be driven by Love
- Learn multiple ways of solving common problems
- Find Ways to Be Gentler and Kinder everyday



What is Tension Headaches
What You Need to Know About it - Compiled by Dan E. Austin MD Internal Medicine

What is a tension headache?

Tension headaches are caused by muscle contractions in the head and neck regions.
Ibuprofen or aspirin can be used to relieve tension headaches. However, these medications should be used sparingly.
Tension headaches are usually mild or moderate, as compared to migraines, which cause throbbing pain on both sides of the head.

Tension headache is the most common type of headache. It can cause mild, moderate, or intense pain in your head, neck, and behind your eyes. Some patients say that a tension headache feels like a tight band around their forehead.

The majority of people who suffer from tension headaches have episodic headaches, which occur one or two times per month on average. However, tension headaches can also be chronic. According to the Cleveland Clinic, chronic headaches affect about 3 percent of the U.S. population and include headache episodes that last for more than 15 days per month. Women are twice as likely to suffer from tension headaches as men.

Find Local Internists » Visit WWW.HEALTHCARE800.COM Find a local Internist in your area or consult a Neurologist.


Causes of tension headaches

Tension headaches are caused by muscle contractions in the head and neck regions. A variety of foods, activities, and stressors can cause these types of contractions. Some people develop tension headaches after staring at a computer screen for a long time or after driving for long periods. Cold temperatures may also trigger a tension headache.

Other triggers for tension headaches include:
•alcohol
•eye strain
•dry eyes
•fatigue
•smoking
•a cold or flu
•a sinus infection
•caffeine
•poor posture
•emotional stress



Symptoms of a Tension Headache


Symptoms of a Tension headache

Symptoms of a tension headache include:
•dull head pain
•pressure around the forehead
•tenderness around the forehead and scalp

The pain is usually mild or moderate, but it can also be intense. In this case, you might confuse your tension headache with a migraine, which is a type of headache that causes throbbing pain on one or both sides of your head. However, tension headaches don’t cause all the symptoms of migraines, such as nausea and vomiting. In rare cases, a tension headache can cause sensitivity to light and loud noise, similar to migraines.

Mixed Tension Migraine

A mixed tension migraine is a headache that has characteristics of both a tension headache and a migraine headache.


Tests

In severe cases, your doctor may run tests to rule out other problems, such as a brain tumor. Tests used to check for other conditions may include a CT scan, which uses X-rays to take pictures of your internal organs and an MRI, which can help your doctor examine your soft tissues.

Migraine vs. Headache

Having trouble identifying a headache or a migraine?

How to treat a tension headache

Medications and home care

You can take over-the-counter (OTC) pain medications, such as ibuprofen or aspirin, to get rid of a tension headache. However, these should only be used occasionally. According to the Mayo Clinic, using OTC medications too much may lead to “overuse” or ”rebound” headaches. These types of headaches occur when you become so accustomed to a medication that you experience pain when the drugs wear off.

OTC drugs are sometimes not enough to treat recurring tension headaches. In such cases, your doctor may give you a prescription for medication, such as:
•indomethacin
•ketorolac
•naproxen
•opiates
•prescription-strength acetaminophen

If painkillers are not working, your doctor may prescribe a muscle relaxant, which is a medication that helps stop muscle contractions. Your doctor may also prescribe an antidepressant such as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). SSRIs can stabilize your brain’s levels of serotonin and can help you cope with stress.

Your doctor may also recommend other treatments, such as:
•stress management classes to teach you ways to cope with stress and how to relieve tension
•biofeedback, which is a relaxation technique that teaches you to manage pain and stress
•cognitive behavioral therapy, which is talk therapy that helps you recognize situations that cause you stress, anxiety, and tension
•acupuncture, which is an alternative therapy that may reduce stress and tension by applying fine needles to specific areas of your body

Supplements

Some supplements may also help relieve tension headaches. However, since alternative remedies can interact with conventional medications, you should always discuss these with a doctor first.

According to the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH), the following supplements may help prevent tension headaches:
•butterbur
•coenzyme Q10
•feverfew
•magnesium
•riboflavin (vitamin B-2)

Other ways to ease a tension headache include:
•applying a heating pad or ice pack to your head for five to 10 minutes several times a day
•taking a hot bath or shower to relax tense muscles
•improving your posture
•taking frequent computer breaks to prevent eye strain

However, these techniques may not keep all tension headaches from returning.













Common Neurosurgical Procedures
Used to Treat Many Common Health Problems

Examples of Neurosurgery Procedures
•Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion: Because it is not generally safe to access herniated discs in the neck from the back, treatment of these usually requires this anterior approach.


•Burr Hole: This term is used a lot in describing components of various neurosurgery procedures. Learn more about what a burr hole is and how it is used in neurosurgery.


•Chiari Decompression: The most common neurosurgery procedure used to treat Arnold Chiari Malformation.


•Craniotomy: Like burr holes, a craniotomy is often mentioned in the surgical treatment of some brain diseases. Learn about what this basic component of many brain surgeries means and how it is used.


•Diagnostic and Imaging Procedures: Although not technically surgical procedures, there are a number of imaging scans and tests used in the diagnosis of nervous system diseases. Learn a bit more about the imaging, testing and examinations that doctors use to diagnose patients.


•Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy: Some forms of hydrocephalus may be treated without the implantation of a shunt (see below) and can be treated effectively with this endoscopic procedure.


•Epilepsy Surgery: The first line of treatment for most types of seizures is medicine. However, some patients who do not respond adequately to medications may be offered surgical options and there are a number of different types of procedures that are used to both diagnose and treat epilepsy. Learn more about them here.


•Foramenotomy (Foraminotomy): Another spinal procedure, a foramenotomy may be used as a component of many types of spinal procedures.


•Laminectomy: A common type of procedure to access and decompress the spine, a laminectomy may be part of many spinal surgeries. Learn about what it is and how it is used here.


•Lumbar Puncture (Spinal Tap): The gold standard test for diagnosing meningitis, a lumbar puncture may be used in the diagnosis of a number of different diseases of the nervous system.


•Microdiscectomy: One of the most common procedures used to treat a disease of the nervous system, this procedure is the way that most herniated discs in the lumbar spine are treated.


•Pituitary Tumor Surgery (Transsphenoidal Surgery): Most pituitary adenomas, benign tumors of the pituitary gland, are treated by surgery through a route called the transsphenoidal approach.


•Spinal Fusion: Fusion of the spine may be necessary in a number of spinal disease conditions, from degenerative disease to trauma. Learn more about what it is and why it is used here.


•Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt: One of the classic treatments for hydrocephalus, a shunt is an internal implant that helps divert fluid from the brain. Learn more about it and its uses here.


•Ventriculostomy: A ventriculostomy, a tube placed into the fluid spaces within the brain, is a common procedure that may be used in a number of different clinical situations. Learn more about them here.











Treatment of Seizures
What You Need to Know

Most people with epilepsy can become seizure-free by taking one anti-seizure medication, called anti-epileptic medication. Others may be able to decrease the frequency and intensity of their seizures by taking a combination of medications. Your doctor will advise you about the appropriate time to stop taking medications.

More than half the children with epilepsy who aren't experiencing epilepsy symptoms can eventually discontinue medications and live a seizure-free life. Many adults also can discontinue medications after two or more years without seizures.

Finding the right medication and dosage can be complex. Your doctor will consider your condition, frequency of seizures, your age and other factors when choosing which medication to prescribe. Your doctor will also review any other medications you may be taking, to ensure the anti-epileptic medications won't interact with them.

Your doctor likely will first prescribe a single medication at a relatively low dosage and may increase the dosage gradually until your seizures are well-controlled.

Anti-seizure medications may have some side effects. Mild side effects include:

Fatigue
Dizziness
Weight gain
Loss of bone density
Skin rashes
Loss of coordination
Speech problems
Memory and thinking problems
More severe but rare side effects include:

Depression
Suicidal thoughts and behaviors
Severe rash
Inflammation of certain organs, such as your liver
To achieve the best seizure control possible with medication, follow these steps:

Take medications exactly as prescribed.
Always call your doctor before switching to a generic version of your medication or taking other prescription medications, over-the-counter drugs or herbal remedies.
Never stop taking your medication without talking to your doctor.
Notify your doctor immediately if you notice new or increased feelings of depression, suicidal thoughts, or unusual changes in your mood or behaviors.
Tell your doctor if you have migraines. Doctors may prescribe one of the anti-epileptic medications that can prevent your migraines and treat epilepsy.
At least half of all people newly diagnosed with epilepsy will become seizure-free with their first medication. If anti-epileptic medications don't provide satisfactory results, your doctor may suggest surgery or other therapies. You'll have regular follow-up appointments with your doctor to evaluate your condition and medications.


Glutamate Treatment For Schizophrenia
New Hope - Jornal of Psychiatry

In patients with schizophrenia, positive symptoms typically respond to treatment, while negative and cognitive symptoms often persist and contribute to chronic disability.1 Schizophrenia also is associated with widespread neurocognitive deficits—including impairments in executive functioning, learning, memory, and processing speed—that are a core feature of the disorder and may precede illness onset.2
MD-IQ QUIZ: Recognizing & treating borderline personality disorder

Current treatment is based on the dopamine model of schizophrenia, which proposes that dopaminergic dysfunction is the basis for symptoms and cognitive deficits.3 Although this model is effective in guiding treatment for some patients, most show persistent disability despite receiving the best available treatment. Over the last 2 decades, researchers have developed alternative conceptual models of schizophrenia based on the psychotomimetic effects of compounds such as phencyclidine (PCP) and ketamine.4 These compounds function primarily by blocking N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs), which has lead researchers to focus on glutamatergic neurotransmission and NMDARs as a basis for new drug development. This article describes the glutamatergic model of schizophrenia and its implications for future treatments.

Glutamate: New hope for schizophrenia treatment


CBN not establishing an Islamic bank, says Sanusi



BN Governor, Malam Sanusi Lamido Sanusi, says the apex bank is not in any way promoting or establishing an Islamic bank in Nigeria, contrary to speculations in some quarters.

Sanusi made the clarification on Monday in Abuja, at a two-day International Conference on Non-Interest Islamic Banking.

The Central Bank is not promoting or establishing Islamic bank, the Central bank is simply licensing and regulating an institution that is allowed to exist under the law.

To the extent that this bank is not allowed to deny anyone the opportunity to be a stakeholder and to the extent that they do not deny anyone to set up his own bank.

There is absolutely no discrimination. We have to continue making that point, hopefully, people will get to understand with time,’’ he said.

He maintained that those who felt that what the apex bank was doing was illegal should go to the court of law.

According to him, the bank will stop the establishment of non-interest Islamic banking if the court says it is illegal.

But we don’t think the court will say so because we know we are acting within the realm of the law but it is only the court of law that can make a pronouncement on the legality of anything.

So if anybody says it is illegal, then he should go to the court of law and let the law pronounce the legality or illegality of it,’’ he said.

Sanusi said that the non-interest banking had been practised in about 435 institutions and in about 75 countries in the world.

He said that with the guidelines in place, Nigeria was set to join the league of other countries to benefit from the non-interest banking.

To ensure effective operations, he said, Nigeria had joined the Islamic Financial Service Board and ensured collaboration between Securities and Exchange Commission and Nigeria Deposit Insurance Corporation. (NAN)


Bank Crisis Will be Over Soon - Sanusi



The Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Governor, Mallam Lamido Sanusi, has stated in Lagos, that the crisis currently rocking some of the nation’s financial institutions would soon be a thing of the past.

Giving the assurance on Tuesday, at the official commissioning of Super-flux International new ultra-modern factory in Lagos, the CBN governor argued that with the various reforms put in place by the apex bank, the troubled financial institutions would bounce back by the end of the second quarter of the year.

He stated that the introduction of Asset Management Company of Nigeria, by the apex bank, would go a long way in helping some of the troubled banks dispense off their toxic assets, which in turn will go a long way in enhancing the health of such banks.

The company was set up to help recapitalise banks rescued in a N620 billion or $4 billion CBN bailout in 2009 and to restore lending in nation’s economy.

Mallam Sanusi added that the recapitalisation exercise, put in place by the apex bank which was expected to end in the first of the year, would enable financial institutions in the country shore up their base and empower them with the needed capital to run their businesses.

The CBN boss argued that with the level of interest being shown by investors both within and outside the shores of the land in the nation’s financial sector, the crisis in the sector would fizzle out by the end of June, this year.


IBB Congratulates Jonathan
The Nation News

FORMER presidential aspirant, General Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida, Friday congratulated President Goodluck Jonathan for defeating ex-Vice-President Atiku Abubakar to win the presidential ticket of the Peoples Democratic Party.

Babangida, who personally signed a statement, urged Jonathan to be magnanimous in victory.

The statement reads: "I, Gen. Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida, GCFR wish to congratulate President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan, GCFR for his landslide victory at yesterday’s presidential primaries of our great party, the the Peoples Democratic Party (PDP), held at the Eagles Square, Abuja.

"His victory at the primaries is not only personal but to all members of our great party; to lovers of peace, unity and progress; and to all those who believe in democracy and Nigeria.

"I therefore urge him to be magnanimous in victory and carry along with him those who lost at yesterday’s event. This is the only way we can bury the intra-party differences and bitterness that preceded the primaries.

"Special congratulations to former Vice-President, Alhaji Atiku Abubakar, for putting up a gallant fight and braving all the odds to make an impressive showing at the primaries. History will always give him a place of pride for his tireless efforts to enthrone democracy in Nigeria.

"My admiration also goes to the woman of substance and courage, who never gives up –Mrs Sarah Jibril- who has since 1993 sought every opportunity to offer her services as the President of this country.

"Even though she has not succeeded, history will one day say this is the woman who saw tomorrow when eventually Nigeria elects a woman President.’’



World Bank Rates Nigeria’s Growth Forecast Ahead South Africa’s
Executive Commissioner, Finance and Administration, Securities & Exchange Commission (SEC), Lawal Sani Stores (left); Director General, SEC, Arunma Oteh; Governor of Zamfara State, Mahmuda Aliyu Shinkafi; Executive Commissioner, Operations, Daisy Ekineh; and Executive Commissioner, Legal and Enforcement, SEC, Charles Udora, During The Governor’s Visit to SEC Headquarters in Abuja.

The World Bank on Thursday boosted its growth forecast for Nigeria, second-largest economy in Africa ahead of that of South Africa, leading economy in the continent.

The global lender noted that the growth forecast for Nigeria, Africa’s biggest oil producer, will rise to 7.1 percent in 2011, from a previous estimate of 5.7 percent.

The bank also stated that the federal government spending on infrastructure projects and growth in non-oil industries should help support the economy, which is expected to grow 6.2 percent in 2012.

The World Bank raised its forecast for economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa to 5.3 percent in 2011 as the global economy recovers and the outlook improves for oil producers such as Nigeria and Angola.

Growth in the world’s poorest region will pick up from an estimated 4.7 percent in 2010, the Washington-based lender said in its Global Economic Prospects report on its website on Thursday.

On June 9, the Bank had predicted growth of 5.1 percent this year.

“Growth is expected to be driven by continued recovery in the global economy,” the World Bank said, pointing out that “developments in domestic demand will continue to play a dominant role.”

South Africa’s economy, the biggest on the continent, will probably expand 3.5 percent this year and 4.1 percent in 2012 as the government steps up spending on infrastructure projects and consumer spending rebounds, the bank said.

Those are in line with forecasts published by the National Treasury on October 27.

The rand’s 12 percent surge against the dollar since June 1 is hindering exports, undermining growth in manufacturing, the World Bank said.

The currency was trading at 6.8467 against the dollar as of 10:21 a.m. in Johannesburg from 6.8364 late Thursday.

“South Africa has been and is likely to continue to be affected by the appreciation of the rand;” the bank said, saying manufacturing “has become increasingly less competitive because of rand appreciation.”

Angola, Sub-Saharan Africa’s second-largest oil producer, will expand about 6.7 percent this year and 7.5 percent in 2012. Ghana, which began exporting oil for the first time this year, will have the fastest growth on the continent at 13.4 percent in 2011 and 10 percent in 2012, the World Bank said.

The outlook in Kenya, East Africa ’s biggest economy, “remains favourable,” with growth of 5.2 percent expected for this year and 5.5 percent in 2012, the bank said. While Kenya is benefiting from rising trade with the rest of the region, drought could damage agricultural output, derailing the growth outlook, the bank said.

The biggest risk to Africa ’s growth prospects is another slump in the global economy as most countries on the continent have “depleted the fiscal space they had created during the pre-crisis period and have not had time to rebuild it,” the World Bank said.

Fiscal austerity programmes in Europe, which is Africa’s biggest trading partner, may hamper the growth outlook, it said.


‘Banking Reforms Unprotective of Workers’ Jobs’
The Nation Reports

The Central Bank is the bankers’ bank. It protects the banks and their customers. The economy of a country, more or less, lies in the hands of the Central Bank, and banks are major players in the economy. In managing the economic stress of a country, the Central Bank must play a balancing act. It must not embark on policies that may kill the banks, and at the same time it must ensure that the banks don’t toy with depositors fund.

In 2009, the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) in bid to protect the economy took certain measures against some bank chiefs, who were found wanting. The CBN action still echoed in the banks last year. This has put fears in mind of ASSBIFI for this year.

The Association has cautioned CBN against selling ailing banks to foreign investors as being contemplated. Such a sale, ASSBIFI believes, will undermine the country’s financial autonomy and economic sovereignty.

In its New Year message to workers, signed by the National President, Comrade Salako Sunday Olusoji, ASSBIFI said such sale would lead to loss of jobs and closure of indigenous companies.

Lamenting last year’s loss of jobs in the sector, Salako said: "It is significant to point out that the sale of the banks to foreign investors would further undermine our financial autonomy and economic sovereignty to the same lackeys of neo-liberalism that want to hijack all the strategic areas of our national economy for their private and individual exclusive exploitation.



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